馬場辰猪『日本文典初歩』

国語史・日本語史周辺(日本文学・日本史・言語学などなど)の覚書です。
最善の説を記録しているものではありません。変な説も記録しています。
書誌として不完全です。
項目の形に規準はほとんどありません*
「検索」ボタンを活用して下さい。 岡島昭浩がやっております。 一部、JSPSの15H01883,18520354などの恩恵を受けております。

馬場辰猪『日本文典初歩』

日本文典初歩 (An Elementary Grammar of the Japanese language.)

 馬場辰猪著。西暦一八七三年(明治六)倫敦?出版著者英國に在留中國語問題につき我同胞間に行はれる謬見を慨して英文を以て本書を著し、一方には國語の概念を外人に與へ、他方には邦人國語に對する謬見を指斥せむことを努めた。當時森有禮が「日本の教育?」(Education in Japan)の序に、我國語支那語の助を借らねば思想交換の目的を達することが出來ない、これは實に国語の缺点の多いのを示すといへるを駁し、「ジョン・ロック?」John Locke?國語の目的に關する三條件を引いて、我國語の優秀な所以を論じ、二個の國語の優劣を判するのには種々の方面に亘って綿密な研究を要することを説き、法律上の用語は我國語では示されないといふ説に對し「オースチン?」Austin? 「ウェーランド?」Wayland? の説を引用し、或は「ホイツネー?」Whitney?手紙を擧げて、森氏が諸國語英語を採用するといふ意見に対しその不可な所以を痛論し、日本語で普通教育?を完成するに毫も不可無しと痛破してゐる。当時國學者がなほ因循で毫も覚醒しない時に方ってこの政治家に依って斯る意見の發表を見、且一部の口語文典を著されたのは實に感歎に堪へ無い。「大日本書史?」にも英文で記述した最良著であると評してゐるのは尤である。本書は西暦一九〇四年(明治三十七)の第三版に於て浮田和民、「ヂオシー?」Diosy?二氏の手で大に増補された。本書の内容は簡易を旨としたれど全篇を聲音品詞文章の三部に分ち、殊に文章論には文の組織に關する十八条の規則を掲げ、最後に數多の練習問題を載せてゐる。明治時代國語學史上注意すべき著述である。

【參考】

*   Education in Japan 森有礼

亀田次郎国語学書目解題」)


PREFACE.

WE have two objects in publishing this book-the first,

to give a general idea of the Japanese language as it is

spoken ; and the second, to protest against a prevalent

opinion entertained by many of our countrymen, as well

as foreigners who take some interest in our country, and

to show the reasons why we do so. It is affirmed that

our language is so imperfect that we cannot establish a

regular and systematical course of education by means

of it ; and that the best way is to exterminate the

Japanese language altogether, and to substitute the

English language for it. Those who maintain this

opinion ought to have examined the language and

proved its imperfection as a medium of intellectual

thought and expression, but so far as we are aware

they have not done so.

For example, Mr. Mori, in his introduction to

" Education in Japan," says, " without the aid of the

Chinese, our language has never been taught or used for

any purpose of communication. This shows its poverty."

From this statement, which seems to us to be too little

qualified, indeed, to be altogether much too extravagant

and sweeping, we are compelled emphatically to dissent.

Before the introdntctieu of Chinese we must have had

some sort of lane, uage which served as a means

of communication. Since we introduced the Chinese

classics, literature, &c., we have been obliged to use

Chinese words or phrases which we could not ex-

press in Japanese, and so it became necessary to teach

our language with the aid of Chinese. This is generally

the case when one nation introduces the classical lite-

rature of another country ; because there are always

many words in the latter, for which the language of the

former cannot find synonyms or equivalents.

John Locke says in his philosophical works,*' ....

. .. it being obvious to observe great store of words

in one language which have not any that answer them

in another. Which plainly shows that those of one

country, by their customs and manners of life, have

found occasion to make several complex ideas, and given

names to them, which others never collected into specific

ideas. The terms of our law, which are not empty

sounds, will hardly find words answering to them in the

Spanish or Italian, no scanty language ; much less, I

think, could any one translate into the Caribbee or

Westoe tongue ; and the Versura of the Romans or

Corbans of the Jews have no words in other languages

to answer them ; the reason whereof is plain from what

has been said. There are no ideas more common and

less compounded than the measures of time, extension

and weight ; aid the Latin names, horn, pes, libra, are

without difficulty rendered by the English names, hour,

foot, and pound ; but yet there is nothing more evident

than that the ideas a Roman annexed to these Latin

names were very far different from those which an

Englishman expresses by those English ones."

In the translation of Roman laws into the English

language, as in Gains or the Institutes of Justinian,

many Latin swords or phrases, such as " j ura in re," " jus

Civili," "Bona fide," &c., are retained ; yet this does not

show the poverty- of the English language, but only the

difference in their ideas and customs. Therefore the fact

that one language is taught with the aid of another,

does not prove its poverty. Hence we may reasonably

demand the proofs of the alleged poverty of the Japa-

nese tongue, for we cannot admit the assertions against

which we protest.

Here w e shall briefly state the view which we take as

regards our language.

Although we admit, in some respects, that the Japa-

nese language is imperfect, yet it seems to us that it is

not so imperfect as it is represented to be. We hope it

will be seen from this manual that certain rules are

observed throughout every part of speech ; there are

eight parts of speech, their subdivisions, .tenses, moods,

or voices of verbs, rules of syntax, and sb on. It is

sufficiently perfect to teach the elements of common edu-

cation so far as grammar itself is concerned.

John Locke says, in his work above quoted,** the

"Ends of language . . . . . . ; first, to make known

one man's thoughts or ideas to another ; secondly, to do

it with as much ease and quickness as possible ; thirdly,

thereby to convey the knowledge of things." We think

that our language is sufficiently systematical to accom-

plish these ends with certain exceptions.

We admit that in several respects the English is far

superior to the Japanese, but at the same time, we

think in many respects the latter excels the former.

For instance, generally speaking, English has the ad-

vantage of brevity of expression ; at the same time it

must. be borne in mind that there are many. Japanese

words and phrases which cannot be expressed in English

without circumlocution, as Yama in Japanese signifies

an enterprise having pecuniary gains for its object. On

the other hand we have a regular orthoo'raphy and more

uniform pronunciations in the Japanese, while it is

generally admitted that the English language in both

these respects is very defective. Thus, after a careful

examination, it will be found that there are perfections

and imperfections in both languages.

Again Mr. Mori says, in his introduction to the work

above referred to, The laws of state can never be pre-

served by the language of Japan," by which we suppose

he means that the laws of state cannot be recorded in

the Japanese language. If so, we must beg to differ

from him, because we think any words will serve this

purpose, as- John Locke says, " Any words will

serve . . . . . . . . . . for the recording our own

thoughts, for the help of our , own memories, any words

will serve the turn."*** Since we have words which

serve as signs of ideas for the help of memory, we

cannot see the reason why we cannot preserve our laws

by them. In case we have to translate English, Roman,

or any other laws into Japanese, of course we shall find

many words which cannot be answered. in the Japanese,

this owing to the difference in customs and ideas ; but

we can retain them with explanations. So far, we have

stated our view in reference to this objection, and we

think there is not the slightest proof about the impos-

sibility of establishing popular education through our

native speech.

Here we shall say a few words about the disadvantage

  • which must and will arise from the substitution of the

English for the Japanese language, because we cannot

adopt any course without considering its disadvantages

as well as its advantages. As Austin says in his 1 ` Juris-

prudence,"****-" We must compare the consequences on

the positive and negative sides, and determine on which

of the two the balance of advantage Best"

Mr. Mori says, " All reasons suggest its disuse,"

referring to our language. We are very sorry to say

that he does not enumerate all, the reasons which sug-

gest the disuse of the Japanese, which perhaps would

have enlightened our minds. Although we admit many

advantages of supplanting' our language by the English

tongue, yet at the same time we cannot help thinking

that there are many reasons for preserving the Japanese

in our country as the medium of education. We shall

state here the principal. The English language, which

is one of the most difficult of modern languages, and

entirely different from our own, will require a very long

time to be mastered by so many people, so that much

precious time will be thrown away. It is true that the

pages of history show many instances in which ong

nation introduced a language from another ; they were,

however, generally compelled to do so by the conquering

nation, but they did not do this voluntarily for their own

benefit. Consequently, it is quite a different case from

that which Mr. Mori and others propose to do in Japan.

Even when one nation was forced to introduce a Ian-

guage by the superior power of the conqueror, the

former did not give up their native tongue which the)

had been accustomed to speak for hundreds of years, and

which was consequently most convenient to them. This

will be seen amongst the Welsh, Irish, and Scotch, who,

in fact, are learning two languages at present, and

throwing away the time which is precious, to us all.

Hence it will be seen that there is a great difficulty in

the way of this proposed substitution.

Naturally the wealthier classes of people can be free

from the daily occupation to which the poorer classes are

constantly subjected, and consequently the former can

devote more time for learning the language than the

latter. If affairs of state, and all affairs of social inter-

course are to be transacted through the English lan-

guage, the lower classes will be shut out from the

important questions which concern the whole nation,

just as the Patricians in Rome excluded the plebs from

jus sacrum, Comitia, &c.; the consequence being that

there will be an entire separation between the higher

class and the lower, and no common sympathies between

them ; and thus they will be prevented from acting, as

one, and so the advantages of unity will be entirely lost.

These evils appear to be felt in India ; Miss Carpenter

says, in her " Six months in India," " It was shown that a

deep gulf there separates the higher and educated from the

lower portion of society ; and the very civilizing in-

fluences with which the superior classes have been for

some time in contact, through acquaintance with our

literature, serves only to make the gulf more impassable.

There are no common thoughts and sympathies between

them, except in a common love of country." These

evils will necessarily exist, unless some means are em-

ployed to establish the universal instruction of a people

through their own language.

We must try to educate the whole mass of the people

and unite them into one, in order to promote the com-

mon happiness of the community. Austin says, refer-

ring to crimes, " Nothing but the diffusion of know-

ledge, through the great mass of the people will go to

the root of evils." Again Professor Wayland says, in

his " Elements of Political Economy," " A government

may improve the intellectual character of a people, by

the dissemination of knowledge. This will be done, so

far as provision is made for the universal instruction of

a people in the elements of a common education."

Besides, there are many reasons which might be

adduced to show that a vernacular ought not to be lost,

Our limits, however, do not permit us to notice these.

Mr. W. D. Whitney, in his letter to Mr. Mori,***** says,

Even with a fully developed system of national in-

struction, it would take a very long time to teach a

strange language to so large a part of the population. as

to raise the latter, in general, to a perceptibly higher

level. If the masses are to be reached, it must be

mainly through their native speech."

We think, also, that it is more desirable to try to

enrich and complete that which we have already, and

which is, consequently, familiar to us all, than to discard

it and substitute, at a great risk, that which is entirely

different and necessarily strange to us.

* Of Human Understanding, Book III., Chapter V.

** Of Human Understanding, Book III., Chapter X.

*** Of Human Understanding, Book III., Chapter IX.

  **** The Province of Jurisprudence determined, Lecture II.

***** Education in Japan.

書籍からの画像で注記のないものは、著作権法上の「引用」の範囲内であるか、著者の著作権が切れて刊行後五十年以上経っているものである筈です。